We continue to wait to see if the Supreme Court will accept LinkedIn’s petition to overturn the Ninth Circuit’s blockbuster ruling in the hiQ Labs case.  In that case, the appeals court held that an entity engaging in scraping of “public” data had shown a likelihood of success on its claim that such access does not constitute access “without authorization” under the federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA).

In the meantime, earlier this week the Supreme Court agreed to hear the appeal of an Eleventh Circuit decision that affirmed the conviction of a police officer under the CFAA for “exceeding authorized access” for accessing police databases for personal gain. (See U.S. v. Van Buren, 940 F. 3d 1192 (11th Cir. 2019), pet. for cert. granted Van Buren v. U.S., No. 19-783 (Apr. 20, 2020)).  This would be the Supreme Court’s first CFAA case.

And in addition to the news at the Supreme Court, late last month, a D.C. district court issued a ruling interpreting the extent of criminal liability under the CFAA for accessing websites in contravention of terms of use for academic research. In that case, the D.C. court held that the mere violation of website terms of use cannot form the basis of criminal liability for “unauthorized access” or “exceeding authorized access” under the CFAA. (Sandvig v. Barr, No. 16. 1368 (D.D.C. Mar. 27, 2020)).

In continuing its push to enforce its terms and policies against developers that engage in unauthorized collection or scraping of user data, Facebook brought suit last month against mobile marketing and data analytics firm OneAudience LLC. (Facebook, Inc. v. OneAudience LLC, No. 20-01461 (N.D. Cal. Complaint filed Feb. 27, 2020)). Facebook alleges that OneAudience harvested Facebook users’ profile data and device data in contravention of Facebook’s terms and developer policies. OneAudience purportedly gathered this data by paying app developers to bundle OneAudience’s software development kit (SDK) into their apps and then harvesting data for those users that logged into those apps via Facebook credentials.

On January 7, 2019, the Securities and Exchange Commission’s Office of Compliance Inspections and Examinations (OCIE) announced its 2020 examination priorities. In doing so, OCIE identified certain areas of technology-related concern, and in particular, on the issue of alternative data and cybersecurity. [For a more detailed review of OCIE’s

It is that time of year when we look back to see what tech-law issues took up most of our time this year and look ahead to see what the emerging issues are for 2020.

Data: The Issues of the Year

Data presented a wide variety of challenging legal issues in 2019. Data is solidly entrenched as a key asset in our economy, and as a result, the issues around it demanded a significant level of attention.

  • Clearly, privacy and data security-related data issues were dominant in 2019. The GDPR, CCPA and other privacy regulations garnered much consideration and resources, and with GDPR enforcement ongoing and CCPA enforcement right around the corner, the coming year will be an important one to watch. As data generation and collection technologies continued to evolve, privacy issues evolved as well.  In 2019, we saw many novel issues involving mobile, biometric and connected cars. Facial recognition technology generated a fair amount of litigation, and presented concerns regarding the possibility of intrusive governmental surveillance (prompting some municipalities, such as San Francisco, to ban its use by government agencies).
  • Because data has proven to be so valuable, innovators continue to develop new and sometimes controversial technological approaches to collecting data. The legal issues abound.  For example, in the past year, we have been advising on the implications of an ongoing dispute between the City Attorney of Los Angeles and an app operator over geolocation data collection, as well as a settlement between the FTC and a personal email management service over access to “e-receipt” data.  We have entertained multiple questions from clients about the unsettled legal terrain surrounding web scraping and have been closely following developments in this area, including the blockbuster hiQ Ninth Circuit ruling from earlier this year. As usual, the pace of technological innovation has outpaced the ability for the law to keep up.
  • Data security is now regularly a boardroom and courtroom issue, with data breaches, phishing, ransomware attacks and identity theft (and cyberinsurance) the norm. Meanwhile, consumers are experiencing deeper and deeper “breach fatigue” with every breach notice they receive. While the U.S. government has not yet been able to put into place general national data security legislation, states and certain regulators are acting to compel data collectors to take reasonable measures to protect consumer information (e.g., New York’s newly-enacted SHIELD Act) and IoT device manufacturers to equip connected devices with certain security features appropriate to the nature and function of the devices secure (e.g., California’s IoT security law, which becomes effective January 1, 2020). Class actions over data breaches and security lapses are filed regularly, with mixed results.
  • Many organizations have focused on the opportunistic issues associated with new and emerging sources of data. They seek to use “big data” – either sourced externally or generated internally – to advance their operations.  They are focused on understanding the sources of the data and their lawful rights to use such data.  They are examining new revenue opportunities offered by the data, including the expansion of existing lines, the identification of customer trends or the creation of new businesses (including licensing anonymized data to others).
  • Moreover, data was a key asset in many corporate transactions in 2019. Across the board in M&A, private equity, capital markets, finance and some real estate transactions, data was the subject of key deal points, sometimes intensive diligence, and often difficult negotiations. Consumer data has even become a national security issue, as the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS), expanded under a 2018 law, began to scrutinize more and more technology deals involving foreign investment, including those involving sensitive personal data.
  • For more information about developments over the past year on data-related issues, and to keep abreast on new developments in the future, you may want to subscribe to Proskauer’s privacy blog, privacylaw.proskauer.com. You may also want to review our Practical Law article “Trends in Privacy and Data Security:2018” and get a hold of our update that will publish in winter 2020.

I am not going out on a limb in saying that 2020 and beyond promise many interesting developments in “big data,” privacy and data security.

Last month, LinkedIn Corp. (“LinkedIn”) filed a petition for rehearing en banc of the Ninth Circuit’s blockbuster decision in hiQ Labs, Inc. v. LinkedIn Corp., No. 17-16783 (9th Cir. Sept. 9, 2019). The crucial question before the original panel concerned the scope of Computer Fraud and Abuse Act

On October 11, 2019, LinkedIn Corp. (“LinkedIn”) filed a petition for rehearing en banc of the Ninth Circuit’s blockbuster decision in hiQ Labs, Inc. v. LinkedIn Corp., No. 17-16783 (9th Cir. Sept. 9, 2019). The crucial question before the original panel concerned the scope of Computer Fraud and

UPDATE: On October 14, 2019, the parties entered into a Joint Stipulation dismissing the case, with prejudice.  It appears from some reports that Stackla’s access to Facebook has been reinstated as part of the settlement.
UPDATE: On September 27, 2019, the California district court issued its written order denying Stackla’s request for a TRO.  In short, the court found that, at this early stage, Stackla only demonstrated “speculative harm” and its “vague statements” did not sufficiently show that restoration of access to Facebook’s API would cure the alleged impending reality of Stackla losing customers and being driven out of business (“The extraordinary relief of a pre-adjudicatory injunction demands more precision with respect to when irreparable harm will occur than ‘soon.’”).  As for weighing whether a TRO would be in the public interest, the court, while understanding Stackla’s predicament, found that issuing a TRO could hamper Facebook’s ability to “decisively police its social-media platforms” and that there was a public interest in allowing a company to police the integrity of its platforms (“Facebook’s enforcement activities would be compromised if judicial review were expected to precede rather than follow its enforcement actions”). [emphasis in original]. This ruling leaves the issue for another day, perhaps during a preliminary injunction hearing, after some additional briefing of the issues.

The ink is barely dry on the landmark Ninth Circuit hiQ Labs decision. Yet, a new dispute has already cropped up testing the bounds of the CFAA and the ability of a platform to enforce terms restricting unauthorized scraping of social media content. (See Stackla, Inc. v. Facebook, Inc., No. 19-5849 (N.D. Cal. filed Sept. 19, 2019)).  This dispute involves Facebook and a social media sentiment tracking company, Stackla, Inc., which, as part of its business, accesses Facebook and Instagram content. This past Wednesday, September 25th, the judge in the case denied Stackla, Inc.’s request for emergency relief restoring its access to Facebook’s platform. While the judge has yet to issue a written ruling, the initial pleadings and memoranda filed in the case are noteworthy and bring up important issues surrounding the hot issue of scraping.

The Stackla dispute has echoes of hiQ v LinkedIn. Both involve the open nature of “public” websites (although the “public” nature of the content at issue appears to be in dispute.)  Both disputes address whether the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (the “CFAA”) can be used as a tool to prevent the scraping of such sites. Both disputes address how a platform may use its terms of use to prohibit automated scraping or data collection beyond the scope of such terms, although the discussion in hiQ was extremely brief.  And like hiQ, Stackla asserts that if not for the ability to use Facebook and Instagram data, Stackla would be out of business. Thus both disputes address whether a court’s equitable powers should come into play if a platform’s termination of access will result in a particular company’s insolvency.  Given the Ninth Circuit’s opinion in favor of hiQ, it is highly likely that Stackla’s lawyers believed the Ninth Circuit decision was their golden ticket in this case. The judge’s ruling on the request for emergency relief suggests they may be disappointed.

In a ruling that is being hailed as a victory for web scrapers and the open nature of publicly available website data, the Ninth Circuit today issued its long-awaited opinion in hiQ Labs, Inc. v. LinkedIn Corp., No. 17-16783 (9th Cir. Sept. 9, 2019). The crucial question before the court was whether once hiQ Labs, Inc. (“hiQ”) received LinkedIn Corp.’s (“LinkedIn”) cease-and-desist letter demanding it stop scraping public LinkedIn profiles, any further scraping of such data was “without authorization” within the meaning of the federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA). The appeals court affirmed the lower court’s order granting a preliminary injunction barring the professional networking platform LinkedIn from blocking hiQ, a data analytics company, from accessing and scraping publicly available LinkedIn member profiles to create competing business analytic products. Most notably, the Ninth Circuit held that hiQ had shown a likelihood of success on the merits in its claim that when a computer network generally permits public access to its data, a user’s accessing that publicly available data will not constitute access “without authorization” under the CFAA.

In light of this ruling, data scrapers, content aggregators and advocates of a more open internet will certainly be emboldened, but we reiterate something we advised back in our 2017 Client Alert about the lower court’s hiQ decision: while the Ninth Circuit’s decision suggests that the CFAA is not an available remedy to protect against unwanted scraping of public website data that is “presumptively open to all,” entities engaged in scraping should remain careful. The road ahead, while perhaps less bumpy than before, still contains rough patches. Indeed, the Ninth Circuit cautioned that its opinion was issued only at the preliminary injunction stage and that the court did not “resolve the companies’ legal dispute definitively, nor do we address all the claims and defenses they have pleaded in the district court.”

In early July, Ticketmaster reached a favorable settlement in its action against a ticket broker that was alleged to have used automated bots to purchase tickets in bulk, thus ending a dispute that produced notable court decisions examining the potential liabilities for unwanted scraping and website access. (Ticketmaster L.L.C. v. Prestige Entertainment West Inc., No. 17-07232 (C.D. Cal. Final Judgment July 8, 2019)).

In the litigation, Ticketmaster alleged that the defendant-ticket broker, Prestige, used bots and dummy accounts to navigate Ticketmaster’s website and mobile app to purchase large quantities of tickets to popular events to resell for higher prices on the secondary market. Under the terms of the settlement, Prestige is permanently enjoined from using ticket bot software to search for, reserve or purchase tickets on Ticketmaster’s site or app (at rates faster than human users can do using standard web browsers or mobile apps) or circumventing any CAPTCHA or other access control measure on Ticketmaster’s sites that enforce ticket purchasing limits and purchasing order rules.  Prestige is also barred from violating Ticketmaster’s terms of use or conspiring with anyone else to violate the terms, or engage in any other prohibited activity.